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We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Cookie settings Accept. The dealer takes all of the cards in the pack, arranges them so that they are in a uniform stack, and shuffles them.
In strict play, the dealer then offers the deck to the previous player in the sense of the game direction for cutting. If the deal is clockwise, this is the player to the dealer's right; if counterclockwise, it is the player to the dealer's left.
The invitation to cut is made by placing the pack, face downward, on the table near the player who is to cut: who then lifts the upper portion of the pack clear of the lower portion and places it alongside.
Normally the two portions have about equal size. Strict rules often indicate that each portion must contain a certain minimum number of cards, such as three or five.
The formerly lower portion is then replaced on top of the formerly upper portion. Instead of cutting, one may also knock on the deck to indicate that one trusts the dealer to have shuffled fairly.
The actual deal distribution of cards is done in the direction of play, beginning with eldest hand. The dealer holds the pack, face down, in one hand, and removes cards from the top of it with his or her other hand to distribute to the players, placing them face down on the table in front of the players to whom they are dealt.
The cards may be dealt one at a time, or in batches of more than one card; and either the entire pack or a determined number of cards are dealt out.
The undealt cards, if any, are left face down in the middle of the table, forming the stock also called the talon, widow, skat or kitty depending on the game and region.
Throughout the shuffle, cut, and deal, the dealer should prevent the players from seeing the faces of any of the cards. The players should not try to see any of the faces.
Should a player accidentally see a card, other than one's own, proper etiquette would be to admit this. It is also dishonest to try to see cards as they are dealt, or to take advantage of having seen a card.
Should a card accidentally become exposed, visible to all , any player can demand a redeal all the cards are gathered up, and the shuffle, cut, and deal are repeated or that the card be replaced randomly into the deck "burning" it and a replacement dealt from the top to the player who was to receive the revealed card.
When the deal is complete, all players pick up their cards, or "hand", and hold them in such a way that the faces can be seen by the holder of the cards but not the other players, or vice versa depending on the game.
It is helpful to fan one's cards out so that if they have corner indices all their values can be seen at once.
In most games, it is also useful to sort one's hand, rearranging the cards in a way appropriate to the game. For example, in a trick-taking game it may be easier to have all one's cards of the same suit together, whereas in a rummy game one might sort them by rank or by potential combinations.
A new card game starts in a small way, either as someone's invention, or as a modification of an existing game. Those playing it may agree to change the rules as they wish.
The rules that they agree on become the "house rules" under which they play the game. When a game becomes sufficiently popular, so that people often play it with strangers, there is a need for a generally accepted set of rules.
This need is often met when a particular set of house rules becomes generally recognized. For example, when Whist became popular in 18th-century England , players in the Portland Club agreed on a set of house rules for use on its premises.
Players in some other clubs then agreed to follow the "Portland Club" rules, rather than go to the trouble of codifying and printing their own sets of rules.
The Portland Club rules eventually became generally accepted throughout England and Western cultures. There is nothing static or "official" about this process.
For the majority of games, there is no one set of universal rules by which the game is played, and the most common ruleset is no more or less than that.
Many widely played card games, such as Canasta and Pinochle , have no official regulating body. The most common ruleset is often determined by the most popular distribution of rulebooks for card games.
Perhaps the original compilation of popular playing card games was collected by Edmund Hoyle , a self-made authority on many popular parlor games.
The U. Playing Card Company now owns the eponymous Hoyle brand, and publishes a series of rulebooks for various families of card games that have largely standardized the games' rules in countries and languages where the rulebooks are widely distributed.
However, players are free to, and often do, invent "house rules" to supplement or even largely replace the "standard" rules.
If there is a sense in which a card game can have an "official" set of rules, it is when that card game has an "official" governing body.
For example, the rules of tournament bridge are governed by the World Bridge Federation , and by local bodies in various countries such as the American Contract Bridge League in the U.
The rules of skat are governed by The International Skat Players Association and, in Germany , by the Deutscher Skatverband which publishes the Skatordnung.
The rules of Poker 's variants are largely traditional, but enforced by the World Series of Poker and the World Poker Tour organizations which sponsor tournament play.
Even in these cases, the rules must only be followed exactly at games sanctioned by these governing bodies; players in less formal settings are free to implement agreed-upon supplemental or substitute rules at will.
An infraction is any action which is against the rules of the game, such as playing a card when it is not one's turn to play or the accidental exposure of a card, informally known as "bleeding.
In many official sets of rules for card games, the rules specifying the penalties for various infractions occupy more pages than the rules specifying how to play correctly.
This is tedious, but necessary for games that are played seriously. Players who intend to play a card game at a high level generally ensure before beginning that all agree on the penalties to be used.
When playing privately, this will normally be a question of agreeing house rules. In a tournament there will probably be a tournament director who will enforce the rules when required and arbitrate in cases of doubt.
If a player breaks the rules of a game deliberately, this is cheating. The rest of this section is therefore about accidental infractions, caused by ignorance, clumsiness, inattention, etc.
As the same game is played repeatedly among a group of players, precedents build up about how a particular infraction of the rules should be handled.
For example, "Sheila just led a card when it wasn't her turn. Last week when Jo did that, we agreed Sets of house rules may become formalized, as described in the previous section.
Therefore, for some games, there is a "proper" way of handling infractions of the rules. But for many games, without governing bodies, there is no standard way of handling infractions.
In many circumstances, there is no need for special rules dealing with what happens after an infraction. As a general principle, the person who broke a rule should not benefit by it, and the other players should not lose by it.
An exception to this may be made in games with fixed partnerships, in which it may be felt that the partner s of the person who broke a rule should also not benefit.
The penalty for an accidental infraction should be as mild as reasonable, consistent with there being no possible benefit to the person responsible.
The oldest surviving reference to the card game in world history is from the 9th century China , when the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang , written by Tang-dynasty writer Su E, described Princess Tongchang daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang playing the " leaf game " with members of the Wei clan the family of the princess' husband in The most notable examples of such tile sets are dominoes , mahjong tiles and Rummikub tiles.
Chinese dominoes are also available as playing cards. It is not clear whether Emperor Muzong of Liao really played with domino cards as early as , though.
Playing cards first appeared in Europe in the last quarter of the 14th century. The s in Italy saw the invention of the tarot deck , a full Latin-suited deck augmented by suitless cards with painted motifs that played a special role as trumps.
Tarot card games are still played with subsets of these decks in parts of Central Europe. In the 18th century the card images of the traditional Italian tarot decks became popular in cartomancy and evolved into "esoteric" decks used primarily for the purpose; today most tarot decks sold in North America are the occult type, and are closely associated with fortune telling.
In Europe, "playing tarot" decks remain popular for games, and have evolved since the 18th century to use regional suits spades, hearts, diamonds and clubs in France; leaves, hearts, bells and acorns in Germany as well as other familiar aspects of the English-pattern pack such as corner card indices and "stamped" card symbols for non-court cards.
Decks differ regionally based on the number of cards needed to play the games; the French tarot consists of the "full" 78 cards, while Germanic, Spanish and Italian Tarot variants remove certain values usually low suited cards from the deck, creating a deck with as few as 32 cards.
The French suits were introduced around and, in France, mostly replaced the earlier Latin suits of swords , clubs , cups and coins. This drastically simplifies the production of a deck of cards versus the traditional Italian deck, which used unique full-color art for each card in the deck.
The French suits became popular in English playing cards in the 16th century despite historic animosity between France and England , and from there were introduced to British colonies including North America.
The rise of Western culture has led to the near-universal popularity and availability of French-suited playing cards even in areas with their own regional card art.
In Japan, a distinct card hanafuda deck is popular. It is derived from 16th-century Portuguese decks, after undergoing a long evolution driven by laws enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate attempting to ban the use of playing cards.
The best-known deck internationally is the English pattern of the card French deck, also called the International or Anglo-American pattern, used for such games as poker and contract bridge.
It contains one card for each unique combination of thirteen ranks and the four French suits spades , hearts , diamonds , and clubs.
The ranks from highest to lowest in bridge and poker are ace , king , queen , jack or knave , and the numbers from ten down to two or deuce.
The trump cards and knight cards from the French playing tarot are not included. Originally the term knave was more common than "jack"; the card had been called a jack as part of the terminology of All-Fours since the 17th century, but the word was considered vulgar.
Note the exclamation by Estella in Charles Dickens 's novel Great Expectations : "He calls the knaves, Jacks, this boy! The earliest known deck to place suits and rankings in the corner of the card is from , but these cards did not become common until after when Hart reintroduced them along with the knave-to-jack change.
However, books of card games published in the third quarter of the 19th century evidently still referred to the "knave", and the term with this definition is still recognized in the United Kingdom.
It was a derivative of Triomphe and was the first card game in history to introduce the concept of bidding. Chinese handmade mother-of-pearl gaming counters were used in scoring and bidding of card games in the West during the approximate period of — The gaming counters would bear an engraving such as a coat of arms or a monogram to identify a family or individual.
Many of the gaming counters also depict Chinese scenes, flowers or animals. Queen Charlotte , wife of George III , is one prominent British individual who is known to have played with the Chinese gaming counters.
Card games such as Ombre , Quadrille and Pope Joan were popular at the time and required counters for scoring.
The production of counters declined after Whist , with its different scoring method, became the most popular card game in the West. Even when card games are played for stakes, the amount of money involved is often very small, and is used mainly as a convenient method for keeping score.
The stake also provides an incentive to play to win. Technically and legally, playing for any stakes, even inconsequential amounts, is likely to be considered gambling, but playing for money is relatively harmless provided the stakes are well within what the players can afford to lose.
Card games designed for gambling normally have a substantial luck component, because if the most skilful player always wins the others will have no reason to play.
In many gambling games, although the player may be offered choices the outcome is entirely a matter of luck. The attraction of such a game lies simply the thrill of winning or losing.
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Since its inception in , online-gambling. Since the website casino-on-line. Gambling has been a widespread human activity since ancient times.
No complex infrastructure is needed. Any group of individuals with the time, the means and the desire to gamble can arrange to do so. Dice have been used for gambling for thousands of years and Backgammon and related table games date back at least years to the Byzantine Empire.
Although gambling has now become a sizeable industry, many gambling games are still often organised and run privately. Common examples nowadays are Poker , which since the 19th century has been widely played in North America and subsequently around the world, and Mah Jong , which has been popular in East Asian cultures for over years.
There are and have probably always been professional gamblers who make a living, honestly or dishonestly from gambling. There is also a long history of legal prohibition of gambling.
Sometimes this has been on moral or religious grounds, or to preserve public order where gambling has been associated with violent disputes, or to prevent people wasting time and energy gambling rather than engaging in more productive activities.
Legitimate gambling businesses such as casinos and bookmakers provide a service to gamblers of ensuring fair and orderly play, and in return take a profit.
Most jurisdictions in the world now have legalised businesses offering gambling on games of chance as a form of entertainment.
The types of gambling that have been legalised vary from place to place. On this page we provide descriptions of the more common types of gambling business and of some popular casino games.
Our Gambling Links page provides a directory of further resources. Gambling can be dangerously addictive.
Some players cannot resist the associated thrill, and those who lose may be tempted to risk money they cannot afford in a futile attempt to recover their losses.
You can find further information and advice on our Responsible Gambling page. The evolution of the internet and the development of reliable online payment methods has brought most types of gambling into the online arena.
Thanks to personal computers, tablets and more recently internet capable mobile phones, most people who wish to gamble have instant access to gambling services.
This ease of access comes at the expense of social interaction, with online gambling mostly being a solitary activity.
While some multi-participant games like poker or live dealer games have a chat facility to allow communication with other players, for the most part when playing online the player will never be aware of the other players using the same game.
One significant difference between the online and offline gambling businesses is the legality of the enterprise.